MEDIA, DEMOCRATY AND POWER

FOREIGN LANGUAGE SCHOOL "ROMAIN ROLLAND"

STARA ZAGORA

BULGARIE

1999 / 2000


        The work on the topic turned to be too voluminous, however, it was the way we have seen it from the beginning. We wanted the portrait of the media in the town in its historical development reconstructed and to follow the change in it. We pointed our attention to the problem of the censorship and the relation "media-power" because of their actuality, and because they are connected with the process of democratization in a community.
       All the conclusions, materials and work are made by students. They were just directed by the scientific guidance of:

  • Svetlana Dimitrova, a research associate second degree, employee in the History museum, StaraZagora

  • Zhaneta Stoikova, doctor of psychology, psychology teacher in Trakia University, Stara Zagora

  • Milena Licheva, doctor of philosophy, teacher of philosophy and psychology in Foreign Language School "Romain Rolland", Stara Zagora.

        The project on which the students worked from September 1999 to May 2000 was taken to by the journalists in the town. They answered the students' questions and very kindly helped for carrying it out.

        The work on the research project on the topic: Media, Democracy and Power, was prepared from lectures on the problems of scientific methodology, carried out by the doctor of philosophy Milena Licheva. The methods of scientific knowledge were discussed with the students in the Logics classes.

        For the international presentation of the scientific developing, helped the cooperation of students from the English-speaking classes, who were engaged with the translation of certain moments from Bulgarian into English.

        We see the profit of this developing in the following ways:

  • The methods of scientific knowledge, presented and discussed in the philosophy classes, were put into practice.

  • The students were in a situation of teamwork and had to practically manage with all difficulties.

  • Connected with this type of work they studied a lot of literature on a concrete problem and expanded their knowledge, learning how to work in the town library, and with adult citizens.

  • In the minor stages the work was accompanied by discussions, exchange of points of view and so helped for the developing of the thinking, which base was a concrete social problem.

  • The possibility of leaving the school as a working place came true and it was done in cooperation with scientific associates, journalists and state employers.

        We are thankful to: the workers in the Regional Library "Zahari Kniazhevski", the journalists from the local Media, who kindly welcomed the students everywhere and were cooperating in their questions, the teachers from the Pedagogical Faculty of Trakia University, who helped methodically the project, Mrs. Sotirova, head of FLS "Romain Rolland", who participated in the different moments of the work on the project and helped with previous pieces of advice.

        We hope that the paper we have written will be helpful to Stara Zagora municipality / its archive / to the Media itself, who will be given the text of the developing, and so to the future students of the FLS, who could try to follow the difficult way of science.

        ...because Decart is right saying: "To find out the truth, it is necessary at least once in our life to put everything under doubt, as far as it is possible."

Milena Licheva
Scientific director of the project


Introduction

        This research was carried out as the first of its kind in our town-until now none has ever tried to generalize and index the history of the local media from the year of its appearance to nowadays. Why since 1883?-because until then Bulgaria was under Ottoman slavery and local press was not permitted. Bulgaria was under Ottoman slavery from 13 to 18 century.

        The students from the crew worked at this point with the cooperation of the History Museum in Stara Zagora and were guided in their work by science associated second degree Svetlana Dimitrova. Their research work took place in the Regional library "Zahari Kniazhevski" under leading of library employees.

        With the conclusion of the library inquiries and its arranging were engaged the students-Ioana (9B class) and Boriana (10H class).

        Ten students worked on the second and the third chapter of the research project. They made interviews with journalists from the local radios, TV and newspapers. The purpose of the inquiry was to bring together basic information from the people working in the media in Stara Zagora and the relation "media-power". A couple of students talked with representatives of the local power on the same topic.

        Subsidiary group of students helped with the work on the research project by engaging to research articles in the press, which were concerned with the censorship problems, the power and the media, the power of the media. They gathered the so called theoretical sources, which served as a base for the writing of the research work.

        After this preparation work began the writing of the developing itself. In it there was a combination of emperic material and "theory on the base of personal authors' views and evaluations. The developing is a group work not just in the preparation, but in the writing too - on each chapter worked different teams of students. That is the reason why they have put a seal to this work.


History of Periodical Press in Stara Zagora

       In our research we decided to survey what kind of newspapers have been coming out in Stara Zagora since the Liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. We concentrated on newspapers because in them we can find information about different issues referring to the development of our town, and in some way they are the only source of information: they give us the opportunity to follow the various socio-political, economical and cultural processes taking place in the region. Using different literature and the publications themselves, we managed to find out that there have been 350 newspapers coming out in Stara Zagora. This number does not include the bulletins printed in the form of newspapers, edited by public organisations or other institutions with different purposes.

        In general, newspapers can be organised in the following groups: politics, economy, agriculture, trade, culture, education, medicine, law, public administration and also newspapers - with information and anniversaries, devoted to a specific event or a person.

        The first newspaper primed in Stara Zagora was "Zemedeletz", which came out on February 1st 1883. Its editor and publisher was the famous agriculture specialist, public activist and publicist Dimitar Naumov. This newspaper was not only the first one in Stara Zagora, but it was also the first Bulgarian agricultural newspaper. It came out until 1885. With it, Dimitar Naumov laid the foundation of printing in Stara Zagora. He also bought and delivered the first printing factory in town, in which he printed "Zemedeletz".

        Until the end of the century the number of newspapers printed in Stara Zagora was comparitively low - on average two or three newspapers. This was because of the still slow economic development of the region, which was mostly an agricultural centre. After their initial accumulation of capitals and the foundation of major industrial and trade enterprises and organisations, great opportunities for enlarging the printing became available. On the market began to appear more and more newspapers, and in 1901 their number came to 10. The periodical press in Stara Zagora had its greatest development in the 20s and the 30s of the XX century. The number of the printed newspapers in those years came to 27 kinds (1926) and differed annually from 16 to 23 types. After 1934

        There are averagely 6-7 newspapers coming out for a year in Stara Zagora. This situation stays the same almost until the beginning of the 90s. There are some exceptions in the 60s and 70s but they are mainly because of the many anniversary editions that come out at that time. These newspapers come out in single numbers and are usually devoted to a person or an important political event in the history of the town. Because of the democratic processes in the county in the period after 1989 on the sales market in Stara Zagora appear a number of periodical publications, which express mainly the different political moods in the country. In 1992 their number counts to 15. Few of them survive during the years. The reasons are not only economical. Nowadays in Stara Zagora there are only two newspapers with serious informative content. These are the daily newspaper "Starozagorski novini" and the weekly printed "Natzionalna bisness poshta" newspaper. The best selling newspaper among Stara Zagora newspapers now is "Natzionalna bisness poshta" - it has more than 50% influence and print run among the numerous newspapers that have been printed in Stara Zagora during the ages only some editions deeper attention.

        The first daily newspaper comes out in our town on 16.XII.1916. This is "Trakiiska tribuna - naroden ezednevnik" ('Thracian Tribune - daily newspapers'). After the 7th copy it stops to come out. The second daily newspaper is printed in 17.IX.1923. It is called "Posledni vesti" ('Last news'). The readers get 8 copies and then the newspapers bankrupts.

        A great importance for the cultural history of the town carries the newspaper "Musicalen pregled" ('Music Review') and "Kaval". The "Kaval" newspaper is an organ of the culture-educational association of the same name founded on 2.XI.1897. The "Music Review" newspaper appears in 1923. Its editor signing with its pseudonym A.P. Berseniv attracts cooperators from all Bulgarian towns, which have musical life. In 1928 newspaper has over 100 foreign subscribers, and from 1929 it turns to a two-week magazine about music and critics.

        Extremely interesting content has the "Literaturen Podem" (Literary Progress), a newspaper, printed in Stara Zagora from 1945 to 1948, as an organ of all literary-creative unions out of the capital city. On its pages many poets and writers, who have become really famous in Bulgaria literature, find an area for their activities.

        Among the newspapers, which are printed in Stara Zagora forms a sequence of editors, whose cooperators, and often editors are students. Their main purpose is to be assistants in school education and upbringing, but they surpass these boundaries and turn into a school for young talents. Especially valuable are those publications, which have saved the first literature attempts of many recognised masters of artistic speech. Such newspapers are "Stream", "Student", "Spring", "Prosveta". One of the editors of these newspapers, a student at secondary school then, is a recognised Bulgarian poet -Vesselin Hanchev from Stara Zagora. Not less curious are the outcoming today's newspapers "Flight" of Secondary School "Maksim Gorki", "Reporter RR" of English Language School "Romain Rolland", "Feather 5" Vth Primary School and so on. An interesting publication is the paper "Hey", which emerged in the '90s and was coming out once a month, claiming to be a newspaper for girls and boys, in which are published children's drawings, poetry pieces from children, advice for parents, fascinating facts.

        Two of the newspapers, published for a long time in Stara Zagora were "Zora" (Dawn) and "September". "Dawn" is an informative newspaper influenced by leading political parties, coming out once a week during the period 1907-1939. "September" emerged in 1945 as an organ of the leading at the time communist party and exists under that name until the year 1991, when it starts to come out under the title "Stara Zagora" and claims to be a weekly paper of the town's municipality.

        The first municipal paper comes out in Stara Zagora on 21.10.1892. The publishing of the newspaper is financed by the town's budget. Incomes are received also from announcements, advertisements and subscriptions. The paper is the only documental source of info about the actions of the Town's authorities in the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, as during 1946 owing to a fire in the building of the Town Hall, a big part of its archive is destroyed.

        For the newspapers, in almost the one-hundred-year period from the development of the periodical press in out town, a new, more profound survey could be conducted. With this paper only the start is set. Its main contribution is in tracing down and ordering all newspapers, which came out in the period from 1969 to 2000, which have -been published in any catalogue yet. Organised according to topics, the papers give precious information about different spheres of life during the years and could be used in future service in different spheres of local history. Their appearance and vanishing are directly connected to the political situation in the country, as well as to the economical situation.

        The interest of today's reader in the local newspapers is caused mainly by his desire to find in them details about regional events and - above all - advertisements of different types. The sales market today dictates the domination of brand new advertising editions such as "Biznes Panorama" (Business Panorama), "Reklamen Pazar" (Advert Market) (print run 8000), "Malak Bezplaten Vesfnik" (Small free Newspaper) (print run 25000), which are spend for free. History shows that in periods of economical boom, of political changes, the number of the newspapers increases. Their genre variety also increases. What will be their future like from now on?


History of the media in the region
(Radio and Television)

        If we sum up the history of the local press so far, now we are starting to reflect the history of the local media in sound and speech.

        The history of the radio in the region goes through two stages: the first one includes the period from 1927 until 1990, when only one radio station works - the national and these are the years of socialism, and the second one is from 1990 till now, when we can talk about a pluralism in radiobroadcasting.

        The history of the national radio in Stara Zagora goes as follows: On 13.12.1927 the newspaper of Stara Zagora "Word" ('Duma') announced to its readers that a radioset had been installed in the local club, the cafe "Buzludga". At the end of the year 1928 in the town there had already been registrated 6 radiosets. Four years after the appearance of the first advertisement about the radio at Stara Zagora a branch of the Bulgarian union "National Radio" was founded.

        The decision about the first building of radio Stara Zagora is taken by the Constant Presence in Stara Zagora municipality in April 1935. It was decided to give the building occupied by the School's Board of Trustees until a special building was build.

        After many difficulties, on 10.02.1936 at 17.00 p.m. broadcastings began with the two kilowatt transmitter of Stara Zagora on medium wave 21, um. The official opening didn't take place in the wanted deadline. Despite this the radio was on air. The state of radio Stara Zagora was more than modest and that causes constant looking for partners. The first course for spokesmen was on 19.06.1936. Haifa year after the beginning of the regular programs - on 30.12.1936 in radio Stara Zagora eight people were working.

        On 23.07.1936 the radio started working in the following program timetable: it broadcasted program from Sofia between 12 a.m. and 3 p.m. and from 7 p.m. till 11 p.m. The own programs of the radio were every day between 11 a.m. till 12 p.m. (without Sunday) and from 5 p.m. till 7 p.m. (again without Sunday).

        On 18.05.1937 the town newspaper "Zora" for the first time published the program of radio Stara Zagora (without the broadcastings from Sofia). On this date it looked like that:

11 a.m. - walses
11.20 a.m. - entertaining music
11.35 a.m. - domestic rips
11.45 a.m. - single performance for violin
12.00 a.m.-the end
5.30 a.m.-bagpipe music
5.45 p.m. - from tonefilms (music from sounded films)
6.05 p.m. - a story
6.30 p.m. - single performance for violoncello and the end

        By the end of 1937 radio Stara Zagora started a new programme including Sunday, and in 1939 a constant bulletin "News" was started.

        Radio Stara Zagora today:

        In January 1994 the radio station changed from seven to a thirteen hours' program, and from January 1996 it was already being broadcasting an eighteen hours' program. The logic of the program scene and the character of the programs are based on several rules: the main purpose of the radiostation is to be the fastest and the most accurate information source in the radioregion and that's why an accent has been put on the "News" at every sharp hour and on the animated information program "Reporter" from 6.00 am. till 10.00 am. The program structure reflects on the development and accumulation of the information during the day. In it there is place for analysis of the events and a possibility to use the listeners' activeness during different parts of the day.

        According to all social research of the auditory made so far, the radio station gives enough information about the region and the country. A ground for this is the developed through the years own net of partners and reporters in the whole radio region. By means of a computer modem information from BTA (Bulgarian telegraph agency) is given, which helps for the quick orientating in priorities of the events in the day and in the night.

        The program scheme allows for the listeners' interest of the different in age and education people. Also the competition of the private radio stations and puts an accent on the music programmes and bulletins. For six years row the music line has been supported every day from 11.00 a.m. to 12.00 a.m. These are the programmes with a host especially attractive for the younger audience. For it there are special programmes made by students- on Saturday evening from 8.00 p.m. to 10.00 p.m. runs the fiery "Fire on air" featuring Staria. The programme scheme gives opportunity so that the traditions which radio Stara Zagora has in popularising the folk/ country music are continued.

        With great listeners' interest are the programmes "Kukurigu" on Sunday from 6.00 a.m. to 8.30 a.m. and "Tustra Broenitsa" on Saturday from 1.00 p.m. to 3.00 p.m. They are of a different topic range and presentation. The second one gives priority to the folk traditions and the precious in them for preserving the Bulgarian spirit, it introduces singers and performers on instruments and so reveals the treasure of the music treasure of the radio.

        The large listeners' interest caused the programmes in which the audience can meet famous citizens including Sashko Staria from Stara Zagora.

        The media gets more and more aggressive - in the good meaning of the term. It openly becomes a member of the family, of the working team, of the of the quarter, of the professional person and his problems. In order to attract audience, it counts on the professionalism of its staff.

        People want to be informed. Although they can not always understand whether the media manipulates them, this sometimes happens - they have the impression that they are manipulated. Despite this, the media remains the link with the living world, a world wider than the circle if our constant knowledge, the one that fills our everyday life.

        The media satisfies man's aspiration to meet with people like himself, to socialise and to compare with them, so that he can move ahead.

        In the late 90-ies in Bulgaria the electronic media were regarded as a part of the political, social and cultural system, as a factor for forming the society's opinion and will, a tool for producing publicity. Now, today they are rather an economical factor, because the number of private radio and television organisations has increased.

        The aerial television "Stara Zagora" was founded in the late 90-ies, in the first period, when there was no talk about a media market in the country. At that time (1996) in the Stara Zagora region the cable television "Vereya Cabel" is working, which transmits there wasn't talk about a media market its into net via air, "Globo" had a license, but it didn't transmit. In March a mixed joint-stock society was founded with the BTK included the part of the Telecommunication Company is aportable with underground channels.

        The joint-stock partners receive a temporary license for cable and air transmission. On the 6th of September 1996 the first experimental transmissions of Air TV "Stara Zagora" begin, on the air of the region the first short news can be heard. A paralleled building of a cable net is begun, with opportunities for Internet, SOT, backward channel. The TV program scheme was changed.

        As a regional media, especially on air one, the television accepted the news bulletins to include local news, news from all over the country and the world. The name of the main news bulletin broadcast was "Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, The World", right after it - the sport rubrics "Derbi". More interesting programs created in the air television are; "Studio 30", "Agribusiness", "Orthodox Calendar", "Our fate", "Me and my region". In 1996, 1997 cultural programs were being transmitted on the regional television, a TV show, programs for children. Consequently, the market situation caused the appearance of business and economical programs, leaving some others. Three pre-election campaigns were conducted by the television crew. The journalist Stanimira Dimova and Mariel Chorbadziiska have worked on media projects financed through different donating programs. In the air television Stara Zagora documentaries are being made.


Summary and Conclusion

        Radio- and TV-stations are innovations in the form in which they exist today -some time ago there was only one newspaper and one radio, which have been owned by the state in the region. The multiplicity of the private media has not been known.

        Since 1990 this process has been forming gradually. The first radiostations aim at creating an individual image.

        Their main concern is the entertainment genre, there are no programmes dealing with public activity - they have mainly a musical - entertaining character and commercials.

        Nowadays the public is free to choose a particular radio station as well as a newspaper. Being a town of medium size in Bulgaria and providing a rich socio-cultural life, Stara Zagora gives a free opportunity to choose a media - no matter whether on a national or regional scale. When people choose some regional press it means that they are interested in what is happening around them and when they prefer a national one they would rather observe the national and public events. However, it seems obvious that more and more people are getting involved in what is happening in their town and area. People would rather hear and watch what affects their lives.

        The regional media in its multiplicity involves people in-the "events up-to-date in the area. Thus everybody is informed not only about what occurs at his working place, in the neighbourhood, but also in various places in the town thanks to the TV and radio transmissions.

        The mediatoday exists in conditions of rivalry. They are striving for greater audience and this striving makes them change, become flexible and be concerned with local problems and active in their solutions.

        Politics, which most people are already fed up with, but it is directed to various kinds of music and news. The music makes people feel relaxed and they prefer it when they are at home, when they are travelling or have guests.

        This radio acquired popularity among the youngsters who are pleasantly surprised at the fact that they are able to listen to their favourite 'techno music'.

        Nowadays over 1 000 000 listen to this radio. The radio music-speech is 6:1. It's motto is; 'the best music -hits and retro'. Its way of working follows a scheme, where the speaker is both a director and a musical editor.

        Radio 'Extas': it is a small private radio with light and pleasant music. It counts on games which are a way to be in touch with the audience. There is a lot of music there demanded by the audience and there is a live dialogue going between the journalist and the audience. The main purpose of the radio is to satisfy the easterners' wishes and tasted and it works very hard to acquire it.


Censorship in the Media
- what it means and whether it exists today-

        The essence of the term censorship can most easily be defined by following its origin-for the first time censor and censorship were used in ancient Rome. By this time the censors were official people, who leaded the property valuation of the citizens, took care the taxgathing and protected the morality.

        As the years passed, with this term are named buildings, which control the press, correspondency, scripts and productions of the plays, films, radioprogrammes, television not to stand against the interests of the executive power.

        Nowadays with this term is named the supervision of the media product itself. By it the peoples in power restrict the access of information to the community and manipulate its views on their side. In its essence the censorship is in opposition with democracy, because it stands against people's freedom. If there is censorship one is neither free to be informed about the events around, nor can freely say his point of view. That is the reason why the lack of the censorship in the media is one of the most important sings of democracy in a community.

        From a historical point of view the censorship is connected with the church. So it is clear that censorship is an effect that has a variety of community acts.

        In 325AD in the Nikea Council Aryanity was stigmatised as well as books. There were also written the first 8 points of the so called "Symbol of Faith". Another example is in the 15th century, when Gutenberg began the bookprinting - the first printed book was made in 1445, a few years later in 1471 pope Sykst IV ordered that it should be printed only after permission of the church. Even more categorical is the bull of Pope Leo X from 1515; in which is said that, the printing of a book can be done after his check and the blessing of the church. Even the printing of the Bible was censored. In the whole Europe there are cases in which people were killed because they allowed to themselves free printing. The first list of the prohibited literature is made in England by King Henry VIII in 1526, who prohibits the carrying of the books from the continent to the island. In France the official institution of the censorship is the Benedict Faculty in Paris University: the church watches for new scientific inventions. Prohibited are the books, regarded as heretical, especially the protestant's literature, and in the 17 century in the list of the prohibited books are listed names such as Decart, Spinosa... Together the science is followed the 'freedom of speech'. In 1633 Galileo, Snder the pressure of the church is forced renounce.

        Hopefully, despite the strict rules of the church, there were brave people, though a couple, who managed to find fine ways of getting round the law. Thanks to them and the ability of others to hide prohibited books, the freethinking and science went forward.

        This shows that censorship defined itself as a specific filter, as a barrier with a cleaning effect to the information given 10 the people. Every censor, in this meaning permitted or removed specific information as this was motivated according to the value system. In all means censorship is a kind of dictates, it is means of suggestion, manipulation, directing the people in a way of specific values and behaviour.

        If we look back to Bulgaria, examples of censorship can be given trim the well known to the society in Bulgaria communist period (1944 - 1989).

        On 20.12.1952 the decree known as "I - 984" was passed. It regulates the fact that over the media there should be control, although in a secret way. Together with it the so-called Bureau of Questions of Literature and the Publishing Houses was founded. The purpose of these actions is to strictly control the new-appearing materials in the press or in the bookshops. An organisation of 137 people watched if by any chance the so-called prohibited information is spread by anyone in a secret way. It is paradoxical that the people even have no right to be interested in what factory is going to be built near the town for example. They were so afraid that the obvious progress of the building, did not give them courage to ask what is being built, what it is going to produce, and it so much looks like a mill or a state enterprise. It was absolutely possible to wake up one morning next to a smoking chemical or cement works, polluting and destroying the life around.

        Not only the new-appearing materials but also already printed books were prohibited. There were lists in which books reported as harmful to the communist consciousness were put. In that inconceivable way the knowledge of the Bulgarians about the literature, the scientific and philosophic works of Western Europe was restricted.

        The social sciences' (sociology, psychology, philosophy, pedagogy) students didn't have the chance of direct access to authors. Stigmatised as "western" or "bourgeois". Everything that was in one or another way connected with the private property or news coming from the western part of Europe was sentenced as "harmful", "wrong", "distorting human's consciousness" (all of these adjectives and estimations were negative characteristics imputed to Western Europe). In that way the ideology of socialism regarded as the first stage of communism put "a curtain in front of the information coming from West." In the State Library in Sofia, which is the biggest one in Bulgaria, there were books of Nitche, Hegel, Sartre, Headgear, Jose Ortega & Gaset and other philosophers but the access to these books was limited. Usually they were put in the column "top secret" literature and to be read was needed a special permission from the due institution. As a result the meeting of these philosophers for the students was always second-hand, a relaying of their views and ideas.

        In the newspapers and the magazines the situation was the same. The leading newspaper of the European countries were received at strictly fixed places where there were read and the-information could be presented to, the community after the due judgement.

        In the syllabus there was a deep-seated hate towards the "capitalist enemies" and "disrespect of their achievements". This one-sided view towards all the aspects of knowledge confuses and put a seal to the Bulgarian consciousness. And although the common sense of the people guessed that it was impossible that everything made in Western Europe is only bad, antihuman, anti-socialistic. Using the little passed information that reached them the people judged for the achievements and the good sides of the life in Western Europe. That happened mostly through films, books that were translated, magazines and witness' stories.

        Some people, though, managed to get some of the so-called "dangerous books", but they were just a couple of people. Keeping such books was a danger for the owner. Being afraid, they couldn't share their knowledge. The same was the situation with the music, the clothes but this total nihilism made people suspicious - they could understand that it was impossible for the whole music, theatre and film production of the Western European countries to be "decadent", "antihuman" itself.

        Coming back to the fact we can say that except for the books there are 58 prohibited newspapers and magazines. That has to do not only with the foreign press but the Bulgarian one, too. The censor read the material prepared for the newspaper and if he found in it the so called "enemy elements' he informed the editor-in-chief. The editor should make written explanation why has such an article been written, who is its author, what is the content. Later on this "portrait" of the journalist was sent to the capital- Sofia, where the case was reported in details to the due institutions. They were responsible not only for "managing" with such "ideology enemies" but also to watch in the bookshops and the media dimension to publish only checked materials. That wasn't connected with the literature only. All kinds of Western European arts, with little exception, were regarded bad and the nihilistic approach was used. Types of music as the Beatles and other rock bands were listened secretly among students as it was carefully hidden from the Comsomol or Party secretary.

        Another form of censorship was the totalitarian propaganda. The media dimension is making a cult of the positive character. He is described as concentrated, steady, with pure morality. Dressed in a working costume he makes energetic movements, reaps and hoes and has turned his back on the Western European community values. The last was regarded as an especially hopeful feature for a socialist civilian. In contrast was the member of the bourgeois community- a general portrait always presented as a low-moral person, an exploiter trying to cause collapse of the socialism with all means. At the same time the menace of the American Imperialism and the one in Western Europe was constantly propagandised.

        However, there was censorship in different ways not only in the socialist world but in the whole world, too.

        In USA the first institution for censoring was founded by Anthony Constock in N.Y. in 1872 and was named "Society for elimination of the vice". Not so long ago (in 1982) the military junta in the book is glorified the personal freedom, and that is extremely dangerous for the power. In the countries of the ex-eastern block the censorship was similar to the Bulgarian one: in Russia the government controls the publishing base and the big newspapers. It decides who should be subsidised and on fact directs the development of defined media. May be the most shaking fact is that there are cases in which Russian journalists were killed. Unfortunately, aggression against the journalist is found in other countries as well.

        In 1999 in Albania two journalists were put behind bars for a publication. In Hungary 1000 journalists were fired at once from the State media. In Serbia there is also imposed censorship, by force- there the political leaders change the direction of the media and Miloshevich makes the purge he needs. After this step, the scared from discharging and closing downs of media journalists conform to the socialists in power. In the news and the press is presented only what is suitable to the power. There is a total trampling on the people's rights to receive exact arid full information for the events in the country and abroad. The one -sided view over the political life, that is imposed, can undoubtedly lead to mind aberration.

        Is there censorship today? Is it an anachronism or not?

        If we go back to Bulgaria, but nowadays, the question of the existence of censorship is controversial.

        For the ordinary man such a thing doesn't exist. An argument here is the fact that after 1990 in the newspapers there was a mass intrusion of the so called new elements that didn't exist till then, such as horoscopes, erotic photos (often of pornographic character), details for massacres and cruel act. Because of, for some people it seems that the censorship is gone. They judge for that from the fact that the media language is much freer - there is usage of slang, it is spoken in a "hooligan" way, there is usage of Turkish words and "colourful" expressions. Usually the intelligent Bulgarians do not use Turkish words of which there many in the Bulgarian language. They have crept into it thanks to the 5-century Ottoman slavery. Before the people at once the journalists started presenting themselves as bumptious, smart and to prove that nothing and nobody can make them scared.

        Is it really so? Once there was really censorship in the form of suspicion towards what was written, and today there is censorship on the base of economic interests. Let us make a slight philosophical detour.

        According to Joy Rouson and David Merit junior ("Science journalism. Theory and practice") there is really pressure of the new economic conditions on the media industry. The great merit as it shows, of the American press is its independence in spite of these conditions. This means that the American journalists are not afraid of exerting pressure in its variety of forms and still depend in practice the right of the journalist of personal point of view. In fact the journalist should not only inform, but also direct the attention to the problems, that makes the media a vast social power. If we accept the author's point that social life is democracy in action, that means there should be a search for solutions of a better way of acting.

        The independent journalism can be made by people, who are high-quality citizens, who know that they can cultivate in people the ability of intelligent judgement, for a mature understanding, wise choice, and that is possible if the journalists themselves are able to do it.

        Democracy is self-government and when in a community the social function, taken by the media, is to spread information, to cultivate a civil position and to stimulate people towards social contract, then in fact we have in front of us a responsible journalist.

        There is also the following point of civil journalism, coming from that already mentioned characteristic of democracy by Robert Dal ("About Democracy", Sofia 1999). The democratic political culture supports forming a civil society, which believes that democracy and political equality are the wanted aims political difficulties and disagreements between citizens have to be tolerated and protected. Journalism in the meaning "freedom of speech" which is civilly responsible, looking to solving problems, agreements, difficult situations in different sub-national interests and interpersonal collisions may play their own role in a democracy.

        Michael Ser, a French philosopher and the author of the book "Atlas" says that strong people produce what he calls the "hard truth". It is spread in such way that we should think that the one, who spreads it, holds the channel in which, it goes. That is why the message, which is sent through the media, is affected by his power and helps for his image and fame. This is the way the philosopher shows the visible and invisible censor ship in a media. So according to Ser truth turns to be something not naturally made, it is not the truth in its logical meaning of covering our through with the fact, the reality, but, as he concludes, "there is an important change in the essence of truth. It is checked by manipulations, where the theory was under control of practical forces in the world" (p.253)

        Looking back to our reality we can see that young journalists depend on particular financial interests so here we can talk about "ordered" articles - some journalists make somebody "scared" (after paying him enough, of course) but their behaviour stays unpunished.

        Some journalists find that statement of the media to be a complete anarchy of the media, where the so called disparaging journalists are looked for from everywhere - political groups, inter-political groups, financial circles, people of high-standing.

        This also leads to the fear of the truth about famous people among journalists - they are not convinced that the truth can really be shown.

        For censorship today we may think as the, constant "reminding" that the new power is the best. There are no critics and no other alternatives to the ruling decisions. Where a material is being broadcast on Bulgarian National TV, for example, journalists often give priority to the "blue idea" (the colour of the ones who rule - those with anti-socialism ideas) and rejected the small political parties.

        Journalists are not happy with the fact that the news is often directed. Although there is no censorship officially, the question about the exactness and truth fullness of the information shown on TV still needs an answer. For example, during the war in near Yugoslavia when NATO dropped bombs over the territory near our country no one dared to say what kind the bombs were, it is true that the accent of the damages is on the environment, the air, water, etc. That is why they judge indirectly only -there is an increasing number of people who suffer from cancer, breathing and heart diseases.

        Journalists often apologise for giving us wrong information, but they are rarely punished for that. Impunity is getting strong positions -the excuse comes from the fact, that there are changes the whole structure and mistakes are possible.

        Can we be positive about the existence of censorship? Some journalists believe it definitely exists! What is more, after 1992 some newspapers stopped been published because of economic reasons, or maybe others...


The Conclusions

        As a common rule, we can say, that the main obligation of the journalists is to give true information about events of national and worldwide importance. They should be impartial towards the political life and show it objectively, criticise the statesmen when they do not make helpful decisions. Bearing in mind that, we can assert that censorship lives in non-democratic administrations where the ones who rule try to manipulate the thinking of the society. Thus, the media turns to be a manipulated organisation. On the other hand, some journalists conform to the ones on "the top" even when there is no censorship, the reasons are of moral nature and concerns about going up in hierarchy.

        Independence and misunderstood freedom of speech can be also disputed a lot. An example here can be the report showing the way Chechnya soldiers were holding a Russian soldier's head and slowly cutting it like an animal dying of slaughter. This unedited material which no one had seen before showing them was branded as showing in- an incongruous form and time the war in Chechnya. Freedom of speech does not mean that all the information can be shown in any time in the media. Obviously, sometimes materials just need checking the sense of moral of the author (journalist).


Journalists For The Censorship For In The Media
-A Summarising Analysis-

        In every modern democratic society it is believed that the media should be an unprejudiced institution and a reliable source of true information. Moreover, the meaning of the media is to point out events as a social message, showing the main characteristic features of the society and help us be in contact with it. In this aspect, the objectivity of the media is of great importance for understanding the social processes which also affect peoples' personal lives.

        In Bulgaria we look at the impartiality with a little bit of distrust.

        On the one hand, people think they often choose particular political parties on their own while journalists consider their work censored.

        With the purpose to find out the opinion of the society about this in our town Stara Zagora journalists from popular institutions were interviewed. They were from Radio "Stara Zagora" (a national radio), he prevaic radios "Veselina", "FM-", "Express", "Ekstaz"; newspapers: "Starozagorska Business Poshta", Starozagorski novini and TV Stara Zagora.

        The survey was made by students' teams, according to which the journalists hold the following positons:

First Position

        Here are the biggest group of the interviewed (about 70%) who think there is censorship in the Bulgarian media and it can be separated in two forms. On the one hand, we can see the "authocensonship" used in statements such as: "I confirm the editor's and manager's opinion" or "A journalist presents a media, not himself, so he cannot point the truth the way he or she sees it."

        Such points show the way the journalists depend on the collective thinking and experience of the staff, which provide a sense of solidarity between the person and the institution. The "right" or "common" way of working is provided and it does not allow individualistic behavior of the journalists who do not follow the rule. The first group of interviewed journalists believe that each of them is morally connected with the head master and the colleagues so he should take into consideration everyone of them. That's why they always look for the editor's approval and are ready to give up their point of view if it contradicts the media interests. That "adjustment" coming from the media policy makes it difficult to show news objectively and at the same time prevents the society from complete and impartial information. It also leads to an increase in the number of rights and the power of personalities such as the editor-in-chief and the manager.

        It is a fact that in many publications the personality of the editor is often identified with the issue. He stands on the highest position and reflects on the form and direction of the production. Exercising that kind of strong control which can be sensed in each article,by a single person leads to a standardisation and deprives the, media from its flexibility and objectivity.

        Such policy restricts the variety of comments and does not allow showing the events through another, independent point of view but suggests things just the way the direction of the media holds. In result there is indeed censorship upon the materials and the institution loses its objectivity.

        Like the doctors and lawyers, the media professionals try not to behave irresponsibly which could hurt the society's interests. These journalists often say, "I can't imagine this. I have inner brakes and they prefer not to present to the society such facts whose disclosure would contradict their code.

        Such behaviour cannot be taken into consideration one-sidedly. On the one hand, it provokes a positive attitude because it shows that if chasing the hot news is in contradiction with the moral prejudices of the journalist he will leave it aside. On the other hand, he is obliged to present full and objective information to the society without being influenced by personal feelings. This raises the question: does the journalist have a right of authocensorship and thus of depriving the people of their right for truthful information ? Everybody has to decide that from their personal criterions and moral. These journalists think that boundaries imposed by the institution to protect its own interests and censorship - a result of their own principles - are too big to cope with.

        The interviewed people admit that in Bulgaria there is censorship caused by outer factors such as the rulers as well as the non-ruling political factors. As the media in the country suffer from the bad economic situation, they often have to take into account somebody's interests, so that they can exist. This is particularly true for the so-called 'heavy media', which produce serious and in-depth anal;ysis on important problems in the sphere of politics and make it public. They attract a lot of attention and can, coordinate the attitude toward the powerful men by using different symbols characterizing the processes of the power. That's how the media turns into something more than an ordinary source of information. It is strong when it is objective, covers the current news and has its own private face. Regardless of whether we talk about a newspaper, TV or radio transmissions, the event has to be presented the way it occurred and not the way society or in the worst case a governor would want to see it. Furthermore,it has to cover the news, that is, the 'new' problems, 'new' discoveries, 'new' meetings on high level, not things that were discussed weeks or months ago. Above all, each representative of the media has to have its own image. For example, you will not read an interview with the Minister of Finance in '7 days sport' or hear classical music on radio 'Rhythm', famous for the popfolkmusic it transmists. If these 'principals' are regarded, the media will become interesting, bought and most of all respected. On the contrary, if they are not regarded, it will be weak, dull and boring. In fact, such are the newspapers filled to the brim with ridiculous articles about impossible and unproved events, and TV channels, transmitting only soap operas and weather forecasts. Yet, one cannot disregard the existence of "serous" kinds of media which attract people with current problems. Sometimes they happen to be a go- between the statesman and the ordinary people on questions of widely-discussed social problems. For instance, the strike in 1999 of the Agrobiohim workers would not have become familiar with the rest of the Bulgarians and the workers would not have received at least a part of their remuneration if it had not been for the newspapers, television, radio and journalists, who became part of all this. Therefore, if the media wants to be authoritative, to have power and impact over the society, institutions and politicians, it has firstly to become a party.

        In practice, society is one whole thing consisting of different individuals who are easily hurt by the media. That's why power tries to turn the media into a friend by 'courting' it considering that a poor country like Bulgaria is not immun against economic pressure, As a result, often striving for survival and for a better material status of power over professionalism. In fact, that is not an isolated phenomenon. In many jobs we see a retreat from the personal point of view often accepting the behaviour of social mimicry because of surviving in a situation when in the country there are structure changes and everywhere the working staff is sacked. Adding to that the closing of factories on a large scale, the existence of a lot of jobless people who earn their living by trading or agriculture, then really everyone takes into consideration his behaviour or words in order to keep his job. Often the worrying people in a place realise different weaknesses or incompentences in the work of their boss or his staff but they don't dare to criticise afraid not to be out in the street. Often the people are amased by themselves, they are surprised of the fact that the new economic situation has changed them so much. Their behaviour influenced mainly by motives like survival at the working place, providing the family's food, elder parents who receive very low "symbolic" sums of money.

        That makes us consider that often the media is forced to take the role of a toy in the hands of the powerful men although the constitution of the Bulgarian Republic obliges them to be unprejudiced and objective. The journalists themselves admit that it is not always like that and they often receive "political colour".

        Rulers persuade them how to present things to the society by hinting that it is better to be out of sight. That's why the objective position of the journalists and media is pushed aside and the power can manipulate the people. Of course that doesn't happen as a direct contact, which will be in contradiction to the principles of democracy, but as invisible censorship.

        Having in mind that behaviour of the media, Ivan Garelov, a TV presenter of the most popular -political TV programme on the Bulgarian international television(Friday night, 8.30 p.m., Channel 1 ) called Panorama says that Bulgarian journalism takes features from the mafia and prostitution as journalists protect a certain clause considering the economical influence, executed on them. He often says that in some media a lot of money is spent and the people don't know who sponsors the programmes.

        The interviewed journalists share that if "the courting" doesn't make any difference and the media tries to keep its objectiveness it has to keep an information eclipse. With this specific form of censorship the power tries to prevent the voicing of certain facts to the society by using its privileges. The Press centres of the Ministries take out a certain type of information which often doesn't satisfy the journalists and they would prefer to ask after a shrug their questions to the experts in the respective institution. That's why those journalists who try to keep their objectivity are unable to inform the society and lose their positions at the expense of other media and in this way manipulate the people.

        Although the bigger part of the asked journalists consider that the media is under pressure by different factors about 20 % of the interviewed are sure that in Bulgaria there is no censorship

The Second Group

        These are journalists who reject the boundaries of personal brakes as factors, threatenig their objectivity. They consider that there is no place for contradiction between the moral principles of the journalist and his obligation to inform the society because such a collision would mean incapability of doing your job. In this sense, the journalist would sacrifice not only his principles, but also an interest of a person or group of people in the society if his professional obligations require it and moral ones stop him. That is why authocensorship is not always a weakness.

        Besides, those journalists think that censorship is not something imposed on the media from outside. They consider that if the Radio in which they work doesn't serve a political power that means there is no censorship. Censorship, therefore, is not always a result of political dependence. The very connection with people who pay for ads, the audience and public opinion define criterions, which the media takes into consideration. In practice, independent media doesn't exist as well as absolute freedom and autonomy from factors outside the media. That is why, when we talk about such lack of connection, we r mean media, which is not under the control of a bigger organisation.

The Third Group
-the marginals as we would call them-

        Most of the interviewed journalists think that a media can be independent in the narrower sense of the word, but that in the broader sense it can't be such, that is, they take an intermediate position. They say that a media always takes into consideration somebody, but that doesn't mean that it doesn't keep to the truth.


The Media
The Fourth Power Or Dependent on The Authority?

        The media has a significant role in our social life. Not officially, but on the other hand truly and realistically it is called the Fourth Power. It informs, entertains, reflects and comments on what is happening around us. It presents the facts of the social life, catches and analyses the objective tendencies of development. It possesses "the power of speech" and in this way can raise problems, that have to be solved, it becomes a "partner" of the people, gets in touch with them; forms the public opinion. The media has a high social rating, significant audience, a high level of independence and a strong influence on the community of citizens.

        However, what exactly is that influence on us -viewers, listeners, readers? A single publication in a newspaper, a TV broadcast has an impact on our moods, an attitude towards a specific problem or person, our willingness to do something- to help or to stay indifferent. Yet, although united by the influence it has on society, the media has different aspects. We obtain information in various ways- through the radio, the television, the press, the electronic media. They form the beliefs and opinions on people in different manners. The television influences mostly through the picture, the image. Words seem to come second. We, the audience, accept the reports, interviews, events, broadcast on the "blue screen" as more trustworthy, more real. "When we watch the news at night, for example, we encounter with reality, we do not listen to comments in relation to a specific event, but urged by the spectacular shots we take one side-either positive or negative. On the other hand, we can form our attitude only on account of our hearing. The specificity of the radio is expressed in the fact that it influences us, even when we do not suppose that this is happening. Often when we move around the house or work in the office we listen to a radio channel-private, regional, national: either a song or news. This time without seeing, we seem to hear better who is speaking and what he is talking about. There are broad sections in which the act of a population X is discussed (let's call him this way). Depending on what the interviewer or the participants are going to say directly or indirectly, we will say "Oh, and this man is governing us..." or "Yeah, this is what I call a statesman!" Our opinion can also be formed in another way-through reading. In a newspaper (especially in larger ones like Trud or Sega) we can find everything that is of interest to us: from the peace of news for the day (week) to the horoscope, from an interview with a person of high-standing to the weather forecast; from the sports news in brief to the various advertisements. We neither listen, nor watch the event, we simply read about it. In this way we tend to think over the situation, problems, advantages and disadvantages better. But in all cases the information has to be well-presented with the help of "the power of speech", which usually comes from the journalist's attitude towards the event which is being covered. The media is strong when it is objective, covers the current news and has its own image, private physiognomy. Regardless of whether we talk about a newspaper, TV or radio transmissions, the event has to be presented the way it occurred and not the way society or in the worst case a governor would want to see it. Furthermore, it has to cover the news, that is, the 'new' problems, 'new' discoveries, 'new' meetings on a high level, not that were discussed weeks or months ago. Above all, each representative of the media has to have its own image. For example, you will not read an interview with the Minister of Finance in "7 days sport" or hear classical music on radio "Rhythm" (famous for the popfoikmusic it transmit); if these 'principles' are regarded, the media will become interesting, bought and most of all respected. On the contrary, if they are not regarded, it will be weak, dull and boring. In fact, such are the newspapers filled to the brim with ridiculous articles about impossible and unproved events, and TV channels, transmitting only soap operas and weather forecasts. Yet, one cannot disregard the existence of "serious" kinds of media which attract people with current problems. Sometimes they happen to be a go- between the statesman and the ordinary people on questions of widely- discussed social problems. For instance, the strike in 1999 of the Agrobiohim workers would not have become familiar wirh the rest of the Bulgarians and the workers would not have received at least a part of their remuneration if it had not been for the newspapers, television, radio and journalists, who became part of all this. Therefore, if the media wants to be authoritative, to have power and impact over the society, institutions and politicians, it has firstly to become a part of the country. It has also to work for the society itself. Above all, it has to tell the truth, even if it affects politicians. Both freedom and tolerance have gradually to take the upper hand. And as Nadejda Michailova says: "Censorship exists where there are no rules", that is, in order for a media to be powerful, it has in no way to be irresponsible or susceptible to pressure.

        II. On the whole, the media has an impact on the government. This happens in many ways. First of all, the media has the strength to raise the public opinion and thus influence, even though indirectly, the authority. The media can also influence it by creating a tumult. This, according to some journalists, it is only way to manipulate people, and consequently to be heard by the government executives, for when a specific problems is very-much-talked-about, in the media, lots of things, can be changed for the better. The media can gain control over the authority by pursuing with aukward questions and giving unchanged information. According to other journalists, an influence can be exerted even with a single publication, which tells interesting and important for the society things but unpleasant for the image of a person or a party; in this case, some complications may occur. And these particular complications make journalists feel insecure and with no power. For some, "the media licks the government's shoes" and in that way its influence is expressed. Moreover, there are people, according to whom the media cannot affect in no way the authority but it can only bring troubles to itself (especially nowadays in Bulgaria when we almost cannot consider the Fourth Power as being independent). However, the fact that the media is the connection between the authority and the society cannot be denied.

        And this means that it is the media which informs the government about the public opinion. In other words, without doubt, the media influences the authority, no matter how little this influence can be sometimes. For example, the government more or less is interested in the people's attitude towards health services, water utilities, urbanisation or in the public reaction towards a particular alteration. The case of the place of McDonald's in Stara Zagora is very indicative. It had been decided that the building would be put in a park near 5th school, but the inhabitants did not approve of destroying one of the few left green spots in the town.The media reflected on the citizens' protest and consequently a monument of Kapitan Petko Voivoda was erected on the above-mentioned place. But the project for McDonald's is again on the scheme of the Municipality. However, giving information to the authorities about the public opinion on social problems is not the only way in which the media affects the government. It may, even though very rarely, criticise the authority. Unfortunately, this criticism is based mainly on the rule "ours-yours", that is, the media supports those with power and is against the opposition and viceversa.

        And yet, even though they are a small number, some newspapers, TV, radio stations are making attempts to revive the truth about politicians and sometimes they succeed. Even on some occasions, after a journalist's ironic remarks have been addressed to a certain politician, that journalist might be reproached, threatened or even dismissed from work, but the politician concerned consequently starts to do his or her job in a better way (or it may only appear so). Another point is that the media exerts a direct and indirect influence on the government when focusing its attention on the most painful social problems. There are memorable cases of articles, publications, programmes on a particular issue, for instance, orphanages, which have resulted in an adequate reaction from the ruling circles - either financial aid, or providing a new building for the orphanage. And that is precisely what expresses the media's power over authority - the ability to make aware of the problems of society, to make it rule adequately and rationally.

        Still, this is a mutual power. Authority has as well a great effect on the media, the latter was enormous during the (communist) socialist period. In 1946, for instance, Darzhaven Vestnik made a correction in the 1921 Publishing Law. The new article 8a states that when "periodical advance tendencies that may possibly violate the interests of the srate, create harmful attitudes towards the exsisting social order and placidity or disturb our relationships with other countries", the latter are suspended or suppressed. In addition, orders based on that particular article are not subject to appeal. We can take it as a counter-reaction when 300 newspapers were put out of existence due to that law; this was reflected in a Kremena Zatova's article published in "Democracy" several years ago.

        Naturally all the newspapers were declared to be yellow press. Not only were the facts, religious and occult editions suppressed, but also all the socio -political, literature and science editions. Some newspapers intended for children - and teenagers with games and entertaining sections, for the disabled and blind, for housekeeping and the fashion shared the same cause.

        However, fortunately, that happened mainly during the socialism. For one reason or another the ruling classes disposed of absolute power and freedom of the press was simply out of the question. After 1989 when the change in political regime occurred, the media immediately received quarter freedom. This is not absolute, however, especially when political influence is concerned. Instructions, "financial" effect, threats, arrests - various ways and means that authority applies to "win" the media while serving its interests. The ruling circles exercise their greatest influence on the media through financial receipts. According to some journalists, the media are likely to become corrupted being granted much money. After all, the media are not financially independent and they have no alternative but to allow authority's influence on them. Besides this, a part of the media's policy are the meetings; the series of meetings, with journalists over a glass of champagne during the Christmas and New Year's holidays.

        And after the restrained and suffocated journalist's interest is poured from time to time with a glass of champagne, it is no wonder that the journalists started to see everything in bright colours ...Unfortunately, or not, the manipulation and repression from the highest classes of political power does not exhaust with china glasses filled with champagne. We cannot deny that here, in Bulgaria, journalists have not been killed so far, but a few of them have been given a beating. Svetlana Batalova (a famous journalist) and her father were beaten. These cases show that "excessive" freedom of a media becomes increasingly dangerous for people involved in groupings and corruption. When journalists do not behave "properly", they are often discharged as a result But still, there were only journalists' opinions and views. That is why we made interviews with "the other side", that is representatives of the local authority in Stara Zagora, who expressed their views on certain issues. If we should generalise their opinion of the (authority's) influence on the media, we should say that they have an increasing effect on the public through time, despite the fact that the Bulgarian's consciousness is sometimes hard to control. Being aware of this controlling attitude, most politicians are trying to use it for their own benefit - to promote their own ideas or personality. Naturally. they do not always succeed in imposing their intentions and ideas on the "shady" deals-blackmails, bribes and even attempts on the life of certain people. In addition, the media can be limited administratively-by giving rights or not, by assignments or by "ceasing the resources".

        ...A journalist may be manipulated without even realising that when he or she is "tossed" untrue information and reflects it out of professional obligation. All these can be generalised in the term "control over information", which appears to be a very dangerous thing and should not exist because in that case the fourth power disappears. But nevertheless, the power holders sometimes underestimate the journalists capability of affecting them. In fact. after inducting a "thorough investigation", the media can easily impose "pressure" on the ruling classes but our journalism has not yet reached the level of overcoming the fear of telling the bare truth. It is a well known fact that information is a type of manipulation, as it can be presented to the public in a form of sensation ;and that can be of great importance, because the media as we already said, dictates the public position on many actual problems. Still, a newspaper building an image, for instance, cannot afford to maintain a lie without having the necessary arguments or proof.

        Taking into consideration all examples and interviews presented, our personal opinion that we cannot exist without our journalism despite its "slowly disappearing illnesses"and we can draw a parallel between journalism and the president, the parliament and so on. Not to forget the fact that journalism is what creates indirect communication between people, determines the way we socialise and express ourselves and last but not least informs us about events that we could have never heard of.

        Taking the risk to repeat ourselves we should add that the media often forms our opinion on one or other question and makes us think about many social problems. Many times the media needs tom be helped. And finally who could imagine the world without newspapers, television or radio?

1 .Two reporters from radio "Veselina"

Eli Yordanova, reporter, radio "Domino"

Darina Koleva, journalist newspaper "Stara Zagora Nnews"

2.Vesela Okalska, journalist, newspaper "Stara Zagora News", Antonia Kostadinova, radio "FM"

3.Daniela Georgieva, former journalist, working now in Municipality of Stara Zagora

George Valchev, major specialist

Mrs Gorova, former journalist, working now in Municipality

Dinko Dinev,


Topic: censorship in media
Included materials: Books and articles
Chronological range: 1992-1999

Books

Rangelov, Rasho

Freedom of the press in Bulgaria: Part I/ R. Rangelov - Sofia, Hesky, 1994

Part I Researches in legislation 1865-1900-1994-p.151

Part II Researches in legislation 1901-1994-1995-p.159

Part III Researches in legislation 1944-1956-1996-p.l23

Articles

  1. Alfandri, Eliezer. Censorship on the media and censorship through the media / Eliezer Alfandri // Bulgarian media knowledge 2, 1998, p.280-297. Contains brief notes about the author

  2. Basmadjiyan, Armand. One page from the history of the book /Armand Basmadjiyan // Library, III, 1995, N4, p. 50-53

  3. Blagoeva, Jordanka. Emancipation or about the political wanting / Jordanka Blagoeva // Bulgarian journalist, XXXIV, 1992, N11, p.2-3 Relationships between the journalism and the political power in Bulgaria

  4. Bozilova, Svetlana. Do we know our rights? / S. Bozilova // The fourth power, 1997, N1, p.20-22 Contemporary functions of the journalism and the relationships with the society

  5. Borodinov, Galin. Is the freedom of speech positive or negative? / Galin Borodinov // Culture, XLI, N20, 23. V.I 997, p. 5

  6. Boyadziev, Ivan. Censorship (in the means of mass information) /I. Boyadziev // Democracy, VI, N298, 20.XII.1995, p.9

  7. Burdijo, Pier. Journalism and ethics / P. Burdijo. Snezana Popova, translation by Toni Nikolov, // The fourth power, 1997, N1, p. 9-15
    Also contains the article by S. Popova "Freedom as a moral choice"

  8. Vasilev, Vasil T. The deep blue ideal of freedom of the press excludes the word of the opposition /V. Levski / 56 6.03. 1992

  9. Victorov, Petar. East Europe restricts the media / P Victorov/ "24 hours".v 74, 16.03.1996

  10. Vladinmirova, Petya. Is the liability for the law more terrible for the journalists / P. Vladimirova /Democracy.x 36.09.02.199

  11. Garelov, Ivan. What kind of jornalism do we need. /Ivan Garelov/ "Now" 10, 31.10.1997, p.13

  12. Gaudovska loanna and others. Freedom of the speedcover of the struggle for power and money in Bulgaria/J Gaudovska, M.Badgeva,Silvia Jotoja "Now"6, 27.10.1997 p.12-13

  13. To search the text,History of the ceuroship /Literature, lit by prohibition/' Europe 2001,1999.7-8p.46-48

  14. Denev, Paiiayot. Subservience as censorship /P.Denev/Literature Forum5.45 20.12.1995,p. 1,Annotation Notes of the fredom in the Bulgarian media

  15. Dimitrova, Alexenia. Censorship of the newspapers and zercuses emerges from the secret documents/A Dimitrova, 24 hours 78, p. 10, 24.03.1996

  16. Donev, Donjo and others Brothers don't buy German newspapers /interwiew/ D. Donev Tina Rangelova /Standait/1826 18.10.997, p.8

  17. Dareva, Velislava. Until first singular is not forbidden/V. Dareva/ "Word", Vlll, X" 152, 01.07.1995, p. 8

  18. Annotation: Freedom of speech
    Dareva, Velislava... Censorship degusts freedom of speech / V.D / "Word", VIII, №220, 20.09.1997, p. 7

  19. Zotova, Kremena. The dragon called socialistic press / K.Z /. Democracy, III, №96, 22.04,1.992

  20. Ivanova, Diana. In the Czech Republic nobody discusses freedom of speech. Thank God! D.Ivanova// "Capital", IV, №3,22.01.1996, p.42.

  21. Kapudaliev, Emil. Freedom of speech dies first / #. Kapudaliev // Literature forum, VI, No. 10, 6.03.1996, p.2

  22. Karagyaurova, Katya: About the information darkness and the skill of propaganda [in Bulgaria] / K, Karagyaurova / "Word", IX, No. 12, 17.01.1998, p.8)

  23. Karadimov, Rossen. The ruling party chose velvet censorship / R. Karadimov, interviewed by Anka Karajova / -"Land", IX, No. 125, 30.06.1998

  24. Kean, John, Demokratic Levitan / J. Kean, translated by Kapka Panayotova / culture, XXVI, No.37, 11.09.1992, p.3

  25. Koevski, Hristo, The military censorship (on the press) in Bulgaria (1878-1912) /H. Koevski /

  26. Kolev, Nikolai (the barefooted). What does the prosecutors' office nowerdays contend against - Criminality or freedom of speech ? : Nikolai Kolev - the barefooted about the moraiprium of-carrying out the verdicts of journalists / N. Kolev, taped by Mila Ivanova //Century 21, IX, No. 7, 17.04.1998, p. 5

  27. Kratev, Dimo. The word - shield and sward of the democracy / D. Kratev / Word, 111, No. 203, 25.08.1992

  28. Levi, Alex. The truth is the most important victim of the war Yugoslavia./A.Levi/ Democracy, X, No. 103, 20.04.1999, p.9
    Annotation: the closing down of the independent publications and radios in the country

  29. Lucy - Smith, Edward. The author as a censor / Edward Lucy Smith -translated by Borislav Borisov // Culture, XL11, No.7, 20.02.1998 p. 12 Annotaion; The content of the publications and the freedom of expressing in the cyberspace

  30. Ljubomirska - Krasteva, Maya. The 'truggle for the fourth power - or a step to the end of the democracy / M. L-K. / Century 21, VL No. 3 7, 1.11.1995, p. 1, 4

  31. Mayor, Federico. Bulgaria is a heart of the Europe; F. Mayor, a general executive of UNESCO in front of "Word" / F. Mayor, interviewed by Veliana Hristova // Word, VHI, No. 211 10.09.1997, p.7

  32. Manova, Mila. the workday of a declared right / M. Manova, Vasil Vasilev Word, 111, No. 105, 2.05.1992 Annotation; the freedom of speech in Bulgaria

  33. Marinkova, Lili. The brancehs like the roots / L. Marinkoya // Literature forum, V No.ll, 15.03.1993, p. 1-2
    Annotation; Censorship in the Bulgarian media

  34. Marinova, Clara. About freedom, morality and the law [in the journalism] / C. Marinova // Bulgarian journalist, XXXVII, 1995, No.3, p. 17-18

  35. Menar, Rober. Reporters unlimited: We always step in when there is censorship somewhere; R. Menar, general secretary of "Reporters unlimited", interviewed by Toni Nikolov / R. Menar, T. Nikolov, Democracy, X, No2, 6.01.1999, p.10

  36. Metodieva, Juliana. Why do the journalist in the Hawaii have a dog? / J. Metodieva // Literature forum, Vlll, Nol4, 14,04.98, p. 1,4 Annotation: About the idea of making a press council in Bulgaria

  37. Minchev, Ognyan. The arbitrariness' is worse than the censorship / 0. Minchev// Bamcer, 111, No.49, 11.12.1995, p. 26

  38. Mihailov, Evgeni. The freedom (of speech) must be defended with dignity / E.Mihailov, Vencislav Locov II Democracy, VL No.284,4.12.95, p. 1,3

  39. Mihailova, Nadejda. There's censorship where there are no rules / Nadejda Mihailova, interview - Petya Vladimirova li Democracy, VHI, No.56, 27.02.97, p.10

  40. Mutafchieva, Vera. The media, peering at the tactics with carelessness to the strategy, lose their capital / V.M. ii Continent, ill, No. 52, 2.03.95, p. 15

  41. Nachev, Vencislav. Like Judas on the gallows: "Over the freedom of speech, there is guillotine / V.M. // "New dawn", U, No.35, 21.10.97, p. 10

  42. Ostoich, Dimitar. The defense of the word is captured in "Open Society" /D.O.//"Word'\N:35,10.11.96,p.8

  43. Panov, Asparuh. About freedom of speech and about something else(more)/A.P./7Democracy,J1|,N:151 26.06.1992

  44. Petrov, Evgeni. Is the free word really dying?;the obedient media is as dangerous as the helpless opposition/E.P.//Money,V|| N:205, 05.09.1997, p.4

  45. Petrov, Miko. In many cases the censorship is voluntary; It's unacceptable for the freedom of speech to be used for political purposes /M.Petrov interviewed by Zoya Dimitrova// 168 hours,VII, N;7, 12.02.1996, p.34

  46. Punev, Coustantin. Requem for the free word//C.Punev//Democracy,V|, N:73, 29.03.1995, p.3

  47. Punev, Coustantin. About the censorship in the Bulgarian press from the Liberation till now/C.Punev//Century 21/V/N:34/31.08.1994/p.10

  48. Radev, Radoslav. Apology and repression as tools'of the totalitarism; Observations and thoughts ot'R.Radev about unenviable acts of the semi-official organ of the party["workers act"] /R-R// Bulgarian Journalist, XXXIV, 1992, N:9, p.29-33

  49. Raichev, Andrei. Bulgaria must have another Petar Blaskov/A.R.//Now,II,1997, N:26, p.20-21

  50. Rangelov, Rasko. The media and its possible crimes /R.R// Bulgarian Mediapublication, 2, 1998, p.606-616

  51. Saravinov, Georgy. The freedom to write and to judge. To what extent is it allowed to criticise the leading power and the rulers in a democratic society / G-S. //Look, 10, 11.03.1995, p-6

  52. Saravinov, Georgy. Indicial aspects of the freedom of speech/ G. S. //Liberal politics, 11, 30, 2. 08. 1996, p. 7

  53. Freedom of speech // Russia today, 1, 10, 31. 10. 98, p. 8 Annotation: Journalism is Russia

  54. Stanov, Hristo. Subjective from my bell tower, built from stubborness and offense / H. Stanov // Bulgarian journalist, XXXin, 1991, 10, p. 28-29 Censorship in the press during totalitarism

  55. Stankushev, Boyko. They won't buy us / B. S /7Tlag, VU, 7, 19. 02. 1996, p. 1, 6 Annotation ; Interview with the member of managing council of the forum "Free world"

  56. Stefanova, Silvia. Who holds the key of-the free^word {"two interviews ] / S.Stefanova, iNina Spassova, Jasen Boyadjiev Demopcratie, VTIL No53, 24. 02. 1997,p.10

  57. Analytical description; Contains: Nina Spassova. 1 hope that the time of the personal journalism is coming. -Jasen Boyadjiev. The freedom of speech ends when it is a sale

  58. Stoykova, Rossica. Presscouncil - the right of choice /R-S// literature forum, Vm, N14, 14.04.1998, p.4

  59. Tankova, Vasilka. The freedom (of speech and press in Bulgaria) is older than the law/V.T./VTrakia, XXXIV, 1992, N9, p. 7-9

  60. Tankova, Vasilka. Bulgarian writers and publishers in the politics; the rows in the periodical press in 1885/V.T.//Trakia, XXXII, 1992, N4, p. 69-75

  61. Haas, David. in the Usa they don't put the journalists in the jail; Interview / David Haas, Maya Jancov&V Now, I, N191, 19.08.1998,p.8

  62. Haas, David. Don't stop asking your uneasy questions, D.Haas with the help of Silvia Smith, Ilyana Sterkova //Democracy, IX, N222, 20.08.1998, p.6 Annotation ;Interview about the Seminar on the topic "Journalistic research in media", held in the capital of Bulgaria.

  63. Hadjikosev, Simeon. From real to virtual reality /S.H.// Bulgarian writer, V, N9, 10.03.1998, p. 1,3
    Annotation: About censorship in media politics.

  64. Chervenkova, Rumjana. The freedom of the journalist /...// Democratic review, 1998, N36, p. 38-62
    "Do the journalists want their freedom?" published in the book "Breaking to pieces the waive consensus." Critique on the politics and its media images",..., 1998 Analytical description: Contains: R. Chervenkova.Is it possible that our roads will be scattered with hobs and the journalism- with its summits.- Hristo Butzev. Free words about the free informer.- Valeria Veleva. The lessons for the journalist.- Petar Volgin. The sense of the journalist ic freedom .- Georgy Koritarov. The big new challenge.- Milena Milotinova. No one knows the slavery better than the slave himself.- Maria Velkovska. If we answer the question : "Do I want to be a journalist?"- Rumjana Bratanova. Autocensorship like ALDS-journalism without distance

  65. Chervenkova, Rumjana. Why was the law about jail for journalists repelled?: The magistrates, not the politics, turned out to be the biggest enemy of the media.

  66. Shipchanov, Ivan. The informative- sensors activity of the headquaters of the army of the Dobruja and the North front during the First World War.

  67. Iankov, Rossen. The political democracy and the independent press in Bulgaria./..// Choice


 

Years in which the newspapers in Stara Zagora were the most numerous


 

Years in which the newspaper in Stara Zagora were the consequentus the fewest



National Busines Post Ò
Bulgarian Commercial Newspaper

Founded in 1991

Stara Zagora
113 "Hajy Dimitar" Street, floor 1
tel./fax. 042/5-10-69
tel. 042/3-10-32
E-Mail: nbp@,sz.inetg.bg
npb@stz.orbitel.bg

 

Answers to the questions of the Project Team from
Foreign Language School "Romain Rolland" - Stara Zagora

1. The history of "National Business Post"?

Answer:

        The first copy of the newspaper "Business Post" turned up on the 4 January in 1991. The weekly is a continuation of the newspaper "South Post" which turned up during the spring of 1990 in Stara Zagora. The edition is renamed in "National Business Post" on the 3 October 1993. Since the 4th January 1991 the newspaper monthly reaches to the readers. It is a unique Bulgarian weekly with 52 issues a year, without dropping even a copy. "National Business Post" is published by Stanimir Stoyanov. The editor-in-chief is Peter Dragiev.

        Stanimir Stoyanov was born on 12th July 1956 in Stara Zagora. He is a civil engineer. He is an executive director of "Trakiiski World" AD and a publisher of the newspaper "National Business Post" since August 1992.

        Peter Dragiev was born on 1st November 1945 in Stara Zagora. He has graduated from Kliment Ohridski Sofia University journalism. He is a doctor of Philosophy. He is an editor-in-chief of the newspaper since July 1997.

2. Censorship and the media

- Does the journalist have an inner and personal deterrents?

        The majority always called it Censorship. The question is that they don't have to be connected with fear- for work, bread, and even life, and there have to be concrete control barriers in the personal consciousness, coming from the entire value system, in conformity with the law system, the unconscious acceptance, the priority of the objective truth. Actually, similar barriers are not "deterrents". They are the best helpers in a good journalist's work.

- Do you take into consideration other people's opinions, the boss's, the editor- in-chiefs, or the owners' opinion?

        Yes, in "National Busness Post" as a rule it is a partner's logically motivated easily proved. In this case, it doesn't ignore the journalist's opinions, irrespective of the theme, and the problem.

- Do you think that the journalist can say the truth, without taking into consideration other people's opinions?

        And can you live without other people's opinions? And can you work whatever kind of job is it without taking into consideration people's opinions ? Of course, these two questions are rhetorical. The journalist can't say the truth without having a different opinion. He takes into consideration many people's opinions of course, his readers'; listeners' opinions and the opinion of the audience. The question is that this consideration must not deform the truth.

- Are there any uninteresting themes or dull questions in the media?

        In National Business Post -no.

- Can nowadays the media be independent ?

        Yes, it can - in the narrow sense of this word, no matter how difficult it is. And in a wide sense of the word it can't. The media has always been dependent on the Market, on its own readers, listeners and audience.


3. - Media, the fourth power or subjected to power ?

        Joint answer ; If it is physiognomic, with high social popularity, with significant auditorium, with strong effect on the social opinion and a high degree of independence... That media, of cource, can't be subjected to power. If we scrutinize the variant "media - subjected to power", that mediacan't be the fourth power, because, it-is.... a part of the power.

- How do you see the process of the democratisation of the media nowadays?

        In comparison to one totalitarian society, today there isn't a "decretive", "ideological" obstacle to media to appear in the Market. Practically, there aren't any restricted areas for journalistic intervention. There aren't also any initial, uninteresting or taboo themes. The journalist's work isn't influenced by ultimatum adjustments of one or another outer institutions or person.

- Does the Media have a power (influence ) on public space today. And if yes -how ?

        Yes, I will repeat, the most important part of the joint answer ; Yes, If it is a physiognomy, has a high social popularity, a significant audience, a strong influence on the . .social opinion, a high degree ofindep&dence .. .How ? It truthfully informs about the social life .It "tries to analyze the objective trends of development. It is a natural centre of thorough dialogue between citizens and institutions.